Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Linguists study the nature and characteristics of human language. There are many different specializations under the umbrella of linguistics, including:
Anthropological linguistics: the study of the relationship between language and culture.
Applied linguistics: identifying, investigating, and offering solutions to language-related real-life problems.
Discourse analysis: the study of language in the context of conversation.
Etymology: the study of the origin of words.
Language acquisition: the study how we acquire languages
Morphology: the study of the internal structure of words.
Neurolinguistics: the study of the neural mechanisms involved in the comprehension, production and abstract knowledge of language.
Phonetics: the study of the physical sounds of languages, particularly the production and perception of those sounds.
Phonology: the study of how sounds are organized and used in languages to encode meaning.
Pragmatics: the study of the way language can communicate more than is explicitly stated.
Psycholinguistics; the study of the connection between thinking and the use of language.
Semantics; the study of meaning.
Sociolinguistics: the study of the relationship between language and society.
Syntax: the study of the rules that govern the way the words in a sentence come together.
Theoretical linguistics: concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge.